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Mustard greens nutrition facts

Peppery, crispy mustard greens, also known as leaf mustards, is indeed one of the most nutritious green-leafy vegetables available around. Its lovely top greens have actually more vitamin A, carotenes, vitamin K, and flavonoid anti-oxidants than some of typical fruits and vegetables.

This crispy leafy green is obtained from mustard plant belonging to the Brassica family, which also includes cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, etc. Scientific name: Brassica juncea.



mustard greens (brassica juncea)
Mustard greens. Note for bright green broad leaves with serrated margins. (Photo :by nataliemaynor)


The mustard plant is native to sub-Himalayan plains of the Indian sub-continent, commonly cultivated for its leaves and oil seeds since ancient times. Mustards are cool season winter crop. Their tender, crispy leaves are more flavorful which last from November until March.

mustard plant
Mustard plant in a farm field. Note for bright yellow colored flowers.
(Photo by: itchys )

Several cultivars of leaf mustards exist. In general, its young tender green leaves, which used as green-leafy vegetables, are gathered when the plant reaches about 2 feet tall. If left alone, it continues to grow, reaches about 4-5 feet in height and bears golden yellow flowers which subsequently develop into mustard seed pods.

Fresh mustard leaves feature deep green, broad leaves with flat surface and may have either toothed, frilly or lacy edges depending up on the cultivar type. Its light-green stem branches out extensively into many laterals.

Mizuna or japanese mustard (Brassica rapa subsp. nipposinica) is a close cultivar type in Brassica rapa group of leafy greens.

Mustard seeds used as condment spice are being used extensively in cooking as well as in oil production in many parts of South-Asian regions.


Health benefits of mustard greens

  • Mustard greens, like spinach, are the storehouse of many phyto-nutrients that have health promotional and disease prevention properties.

  • Leaf-mustard is very low in calories (27 calories per 100 g raw leaves) and fats. However, its dark-green leaves carry ample amounts of phyto-nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Additionally, it contains very good amount of dietary fiber that helps control cholesterol level by interfering with its absorption in the gut. Adequate fiber in the food aids in smooth bowel movements and thereby offers protection from hemorrhoids, constipation as well as colon cancer diseases.

  • The greens are very good sources of vitamin K. 100 g of fresh leaves carry about 257.5 µg or about 215% of daily requirement of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone). Vitamin K has found to have a potential role in bone mass building function by promoting osteotrophic activity in the bone. It also has established role to play in Alzheimer's disease patients by limiting neuronal damage in their brain.

  • Mustard greens are rich source of anti-oxidant like flavonoids, indoles, sulforaphane, carotenes, lutein and zea-xanthin. Indoles, mainly di-indolyl-methane (DIM) and sulforaphane have proven benefits against prostate, breast, colon and ovarian cancers by virtue of their cancer-cell growth inhibition, cytotoxic effects on cancer cells.

  • Fresh leaves are also a moderate source of B-complex group of vitamins such as folic acid, pyridoxine, thiamin, riboflavin etc. 100 g fresh leaves provide about 12 µg (about 3% of RDA) of folic acid. This water-soluble vitamin has an important role in DNA synthesis, and cell division. When supplemented in women during their peri-conception time, this vitamin may help prevent neural tube defects in their newborn babies.

  • Fresh mustard leaves are an excellent sources of vitamin-C. 100 of fresh leaves provide 70 µg or about 117% of RDA. Vitamin-C (ascorbic acid) is a powerful natural anti-oxidant that offers protection against free radical injury and flu-like viral infections.

  • Mustard leaves are also incredible sources of vitamin-A (provide 3024 IU or 101% of RDA per 100 g). Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required for maintaining healthy mucusa and skin and is required for good eye-sight. Consumption of natural fruits rich in flavonoids helps to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

  • Fresh mustard greens are an excellent source of several essential minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, zinc, selenium, and manganese.

  • Regular consumption of mustard greens in the diet is known to prevent arthritis, osteoporosis, iron deficiency anemia and believed to offer protection from cardiovascular diseases, asthma and colon and prostate cancers.



Selection and storage

fresh mustard greens
Fresh mustard greens bushel.

Mustards are winter crops. In the markets, look for fresh mustard greens featuring crispy, dark-green leaves and should show vitality. Avoid sunken, spotted, or yellow, discolored leaves.

Its leaves wilt soon if kept at room temperature; therefore, should be stored inside the refrigerator immediately. Although they can be stored for up to three days in cold storage, fresh mustard greens should be used as early as possible to get maximum nutrients.


Preparation and serving methods

mustard greens soup
Mustard green soup, a Chinese delicacy.
(Photo : by taste-buzz)

Fresh mustard leaves, flower buds, and stems can be used in a variety of cuisine all over Asia and in Eastern Europe.

Before cooking, wash its leaves thoroughly in clean running water to remove sand and soil and then rinse in saline water for about 30 minutes in order to remove surface dust, any insecticide residues. Trim away thick petioles and stems.

Here are some serving tips:

  • Fresh tender mustard greens can be eaten raw in salads and can be juiced with other greens and vegetables.

  • In South Asian cuisines, mustard is generally stew fried or steam cooked and mixed with other greens such as spinach, fenugreek, etc. Its pungent, peppery flavor is somewhat tamed by adding butter, tomato, garlic and onion to the recipes.
  • This green also mixes well with ham, pork and bacon.


Safety profile

  • As in spinach, reheating of mustard green leftovers too may cause conversion of nitrates to nitrites and nitrosamines by certain bacteria that thrive on prepared nitrate-rich foods. These poisonous compounds may be harmful to health.

  • High phytate and dietary fiber content in the mustard greens may interfere with the bioavailability of iron, calcium and magnesium.

  • Because of its high vitamin-K content, patients taking anti-coagulants such as warfarin are encouraged to avoid this food since it increases the vitamin K concentration in the blood, which is what the drugs are often attempting to lower. This may advertently raise the effective-dose of the drug.

  • Mustards contain oxalic acid, a naturally-occurring substance found in some vegetables, which may crystallize as oxalate stones in the urinary tract in some people. It is therefore, people with known oxalate urinary tract stones are advised to avoid eating vegetables belonging to Brassica family.

  • Mustard greens may also contain goitrogens, which may interfere with thyroid hormone production and can cause thyroxin hormone deficiency in individuals with thyroid dysfunction.

(Medical disclaimer: The information and reference guides on this website are intended solely for the general information for the reader. It is not to be used to diagnose health problems or for treatment purposes. It is not a substitute for medical care provided by a licensed and qualified health professional. Please consult your health care provider for any advice on medications.)



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Further reading:

1. Refer Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page- Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk (Link opens in new window).

2. USDA National Nutrient Database.


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