Napa cabbage, along with bok choy, is one of the favorite leafy-cabbage vegetables in mainland China. Napa’s sweet, crunchy, and celery-flavored leaves are one of the most sought-after ingredients in the far East-Asian cuisine. Undoubtedly, Chinese cabbages are increasingly being used in the western, Mediterranean as well as American cuisines for their wholesome nutrition profile.
Botanically, this chinese cabbage variety belongs to the Brassica family; a large class of leafy/flower-head vegetables which also includes brussels sprouts, kale, cabbage, and broccoli, etc. Scientific name: B. campestris (Pekinensis group). Some of the common names of napa are pe-tsai, celery cabbage, Chinese white cabbage, Peking cabbage, won bok, nappa (Japanese), hakusai (Japanese), pao, hsin pei tsai, kimchi cabbage, etc.
Photo courtesy: Ilovebutter
Napa cabbage is an annual, cool season vegetable. It grows best when the days are short and mild. As in cabbages, napa grows to oblate shaped heads consisting of tightly arranged crinkly, thick, light-green leaves with prominent, pale white veins. At its core, the leaves feature smooth, light yellow hue.
|Fresh cabbage put for sale.
Photo courtesy: mdid
There exist two major types of napa cabbage; Chilili and Che foo. Chilili types produce cylindrical heads, measuring about 18 inches long and 6 inches wide, featuring erect, upright growing habit. Che-foo type forms compact, round head of green-blade with white-petioled leaves.
Napa cabbage is incredibly low in calories. 100 g fresh leaves carry jus 16 calories. Along with celery, bok-choy, etc., it easily fits into the neo-class of zero calorie or negative calorie group of vegetables as often advocated by some dieticians.
Napa packed with many antioxidant plant compounds such as carotenes, thiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, lutein, zeaxanthin, sulforaphane and isothiocyanates. Also, it is an abundant source of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber. Scientific studies suggest these compounds are known to offer protection against breast, colon and prostate cancers and help reduce LDL or "bad cholesterol" levels in the blood.
Fresh napa is an excellent source of folates. 100 g provides 79 µg or 20% of daily required levels of this B-complex vitamin. Folic acid is one of the essential components of DNA. Sufficient amounts of folates in the diet in anticipant mothers may help prevent neurological diseases in the newborn babies.
Further, Napa cabbage has great levels of vitamin-C. 100 g of fresh napa provides about 45% of daily requirements of this vitamin. Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals.
Likewise in other cabbages, napa too has moderate levels of vitamin-K, provides about 38% of RDA levels. Vitamin-K has a potential role in the bone metabolism by promoting osteoblastic activity in bone cells. Therefore, sufficient levels of vitamin K in the diet makes the bone stronger, healthier and help delay osteoporosis. Further, vitamin-K also has established role to play in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients by limiting neuronal damage in their brain.
Napa cabbage has small levels of vitamin-A. However, it also contains flavonoid polyphenolic compounds such as carotenes, lutein, and xanthin which convert to vitamin-A in the human body.
As in other green vegetables, it is a good source of many essential vitamins such as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine (185 of RDA) and thiamin. These vitamins are essential in the sense that our body requires them from external sources to replenish.
Also, it is a very natural source of electrolytes and minerals like calcium, potassium, phosphorous, manganese, iron and magnesium.
Potassium is the chief component of cell and body fluids and helps in regulating
heart rate and blood pressure. The human body employs manganese as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Iron is essential for the red blood cell formation.
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Total Fat||0.2 g||1%|
|Dietary Fiber||1.2 mg||3%|
|Pantothenic acid||0.105 mg||2%|
|Vitamin A||318 IU||11%|
|Vitamin C||27 mg||45%|
|Vitamin K||42.9 µg||38%|
Pests are common in leafy-cabbages. Conventionally grown napa may have been subjected to insecticidal spray in order to avoid pest infestation. Therefore, wash thoroughly in cold running water, soak in salt water for about 30 minutes, and wash again in clean water.
In the groceries, buy fresh, crispy, compact napa cabbage. Avoid those with yellow, dry, worm-infested and old stocks.
At home, store napa cabbage as you would do for other greens, inside the refrigerator set at high relative humidity. Use it while farm fresh to get maximum health benefits. Otherwise, napa should be stored in the refrigerator for later use.
Trim off base and remove discolored outer leaves. Wash the whole vegetable in cold water. Gently pat dry or place it upside down until draining out all the water.
To prepare, trim the base end using a paring knife. Then separate leaves from the base pulling by hand. Thus, once you break up its leaves and stalk, you may want them to add to a variety of recipes either combined or separately.
In the Far-Eastern regions, on an average each person consume about a pound of fresh leafy-cabbage class vegetables per day; either in the form of raw greens, in stews or as pickles (kimchi).
Here are some of the preparation tips:
|Korean kimchi fried rice!
Photo courtesy: LWY
Sweet, crunchy, flavorful Chinese cabbage can be eaten raw, added to salads, sandwiches, and burgers.
As in other cabbage verities, napa too can be used to prepare coleslaw.
Napa cabbage, also popular as "pe-tsai," is one of the popular vegetables employed in Korean fermented dish-kimchi.
In Thailand and other East Asian countries, shredded napa cabbage is steam cooked with rice wrapped in plantain leaves and served with stews.
In China and other East Asian region, it is used like cabbage in stir fries with added onion, garlic, bell pepper and green chilies mixed with steamed rice and soy/chili/tomato sauce to prepare fried rice, egg rice noodles, chow mein (stir-fried noodles), etc.
Both bok choy and napa are wonderful vegetables used generously in modern-day stir fries, soups, stuffing…etc.
Like in other Brassica family vegetables, napa cabbage too carries certain chemical compounds in it known as "goitrogens." Prolong consumption of these vegetables may cause swelling of the thyroid gland, a condition known as goiter. It is therefore advised in some individuals with thyroid dysfunction to limit brassica vegetables in the diet. However, they may be used in moderation in healthy persons. (Medical disclaimer).
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1. Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page- Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk. (Link opens in new window).