Radicchio is a quick-growing Mediterranean red leafy vegetable. It actually is one of the varieties of leaf-chicory employed in salads in Veneto region of Italy for centuries. Its wine-red succulent, bitter-flavored leaves hold several unique compounds like lactucopicrin (intybin), zeaxanthin, vitamin K, and several other vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants.
Binomially, this beautiful leafy vegetable belongs to the Asteraceae or daisy family; in the genus, Cichorium.
Scientific name: Cichorium intybus L.
|Radicchio (Chioggia)-Note wine-red leaves with prominent white veins. Courtesy: ilovebutter|
Radicchio is a perennial, small cabbage-like plant. It prefers cold weather, supplanted with well-draining, fertile, moisture-rich soil. The crop is ready to harvest after about 75-90 days after seedling. Hot weather and inadequate watering might result in small, dense, and bolting heads.
Radicchio features compact wine-red leaves with prominent white veins, about the size of a romaine lettuce.
Different cultivars of radicchio are generally grown by the name of Veneto provincial cities. Chioggia variety has compact, beet-red, bitter leaves. Treviso variety feature long, conical, compactly arranged, less-pungent leaves.
Radicchio variegate di Castelfranco is a hybrid between radicchio and endive (Cichorium endiva). Castelfranco has loose, mild flavor leaves. Verona is another non-heading type, and has red, open leaves with prominent white veins as in cabbage.
Radicchio, like other chicory classes of vegetables, is very low in calories. 100 g fresh leaves carry just 23 calories.
The bitter principle in the radicchio is lactucopicrin (intybin), a sesquiterpene lactone. Lactucopicrin is a potent anti-malarial agent and has a sedative and analgesic (painkiller) effect.
Its leaves are an excellent source of phenolic flavonoid antioxidants such as zeaxanthin, and lutein. 100-gram leaves provide 8832 µg of these pigments.
Zeaxanthin is a xanthophyll category of flavonoid carotenoid (yellow pigment) that concentrates mainly in the central part of the retina in humans. Together with lutein, it helps protect eyes from age-related macular disease (ARMD) by filtering harmful ultraviolet rays.
Fresh leaves hold moderate amounts of essential B-complex groups of vitamins such as folic acid, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and thiamin (vitamin B1), niacin (B3). These vitamins are essential in the sense that humans require them from external sources to replenish and are required for fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Fresh radicchio is one of the excellent sources of vitamin-K. 100 g provides about 255.2 µg or 212% of daily recommended values. Vitamin K has a potential role in bone health by promoting osteoblastic (bone formation and strengthening) activity.
Further, sufficient vitamin-K levels in the diet help limit neuronal damage in the brain. It thus has an established role in the treatment of patients who have Alzheimer's disease.
Further, it is also a modest source of minerals like manganese, copper, iron, zinc, and potassium. Manganese is used as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Potassium is an important intracellular electrolyte that helps counter the hypertension effects of sodium.
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percent of RDA|
|Total Fat||0.25 g||1%|
|Dietary Fiber||0.9 g||2%|
|Pantothenic acid||0.269 mg||5%|
|Vitamin A||27 IU||1%|
|Vitamin C||8 mg||13%|
|Vitamin E||2.26 mg||15%|
|Vitamin K||255.2 µg||212%|
In its natural habitat, radicchio is a cool-season vegetable. Although grown in some parts of the USA, a majority of it is still imported from the Mediterranean, especially from Italy. Some of its varieties are grown locally and marketed year-round in California state.
If you grow one in the home garden, ensure its edible head is blanched adequately before harvesting (as in endives). In some parts, forced second-growth (heads) are harvested while discarding its green, bitter, first heads. To harvest, cut its compact round head off the root and trim away all its outer copper-green leaves, just as in cabbages.
In the markets select fresh, compact, bright wine-red heads with prominent midribs. Closely look for cracks, spots, or mechanical bruising on the leaves. Treviso and Chioggia should have tight, compact leaves, whereas Verona-type features open, loose leaves.
At home, store in a refrigerator set at a temperature below 8 °C with a relative humidity of around 90% for up to 2-3 weeks.
Radicchio is used mainly as a leafy salad vegetable. Raw leaves have been sharp, and pungent in flavor. Exposure to more bright daylight makes its leaves bitter, which is somewhat mellowed once cooked.
To prepare, trim its outer leaves as you do it in cabbage. Wash the head in cool running water. Cut it into quarters, or wedges, and use it in cooking.
Here are some serving tips:
Radicchio is a favorite winter-season salad vegetable in Southern Europe. Raw leaves are eaten in Italy in salads. In the USA, however, lightly stewed leaves are preferred.
Radicchio risotto and pasta are popular winter recipes in the Northern Italian region.
Although it belongs to the chicory family of vegetables, radicchio has no caffeine content in its leaves, and therefore, can be safe for consumption. (Medical disclaimer).
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