Jalapeno peppers are one of the favored varieties of chili peppers used in North American cuisine especially in the Southern states where Tex-Mex cuisine is popular. Just as in other chili peppers, jalapenos also originated in Mexico. In fact, the name “jalapeno” derived from Xalapa, a provincial capital in the Eastern Mexican Veracruz state, where early settlers cultivated the crop for centuries. Later, it was introduced to the rest of the world through Spanish explorers.
Botanically, jalapenos are fruit pods from the nightshade family (Solanaceae), in the genus: Capsicum. Scientific name: Capsicum annuum.
|Jalapeno chili peppers.
Photo courtesy: Ken Cook
Jalapeno is a perennial small herbaceous plant with a woody stem growing up to a meter in height. It grows well under fertile, well-drained soil conditions. Adequate sunlight and moisture requirements are the other main factors influencing foliage, flower, and fruiting conditions.
Jalapeno plant bears tiny, white flowers after about 45 days after transplantation and green pepper pods after about 60 days. Mature pods exhibit small cracks around the shoulders of the fruit. Harvesting ripe red fruits (chipotle) may last for several months.
The pods measure about 4-10 cm in length and feature smooth, shiny skin with a blunt, slightly tapering tip. Inside, each fruit features numerous tiny, white, circular, and flat seeds. The seeds cling on around the central, white-placenta. As in other chili peppers, jalapenos also have a strong spicy taste that comes to them from certain active alkaloid compounds; capsaicin, capsanthin, and capsorubin. On the Scoville scale hotness scale, jalapeños fall in medium-hot range 2,500-4,000 “Scoville heat units” (SHU). In comparison, sweet bell peppers have zero units, and Mexican habañeros have 200,000 to 500,000 units.
Chilies contain a health-benefiting alkaloid compound, capsaicin, which gives them a strong spicy, pungent character. The tolerance level of peppers in human beings, including jalapeno peppers, may have wide individual variations. However, they should be consumed in moderation to avoid any untoward experiences. Nonetheless, they are packed with an impressive list of phytochemical compounds that are known to have disease-preventing and health-promoting properties.
Capsaicin has been found to have anti-bacterial, anti-carcinogenic, analgesic, and anti-diabetic properties, at least in some early laboratory studies on experimental mammals. It is also found to reduce LDL-cholesterol levels in obese individuals.
Fresh jalapeno peppers are a rich source of vitamin-C. Ripe fruits have more of this vitamin than raw greens. 100 g provide about 118.6 µg or about 198% of RDA.
Vitamin-C is a potent water-soluble antioxidant. It is required for collagen synthesis within the body. Collagen is the main structural protein needed for maintaining the integrity of blood vessels, skin, tissues, organs, and bones.
Regular consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body protect from scurvy and boosts immunity to fight against infectious agents and scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.
Furthermore, they contain other valuable antioxidants such as vitamin A, and flavonoids like β -carotene, α -carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin. These antioxidant substances in capsicum help to protect the body from injurious effects of free-radicals generated by stress and disease conditions.
Jalapeno chilies characteristically contain more pyridoxine, vitamin-E, vitamin-K than other varieties of peppers. Vitamin-K increases bone mass by promoting osteoblastic activity. It also has a beneficial effect in Alzheimer's disease patients by limiting neuronal damage in their brain.
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Total Fat||0.37 g||2%|
|Dietary Fiber||2.8 g||7%|
|Pantothenic acid||0.315 mg||6%|
|Vitamin A||1078 IU||36%|
|Vitamin C||118.6 mg||198%|
|Vitamin E||3.58 mg||24%|
|Vitamin K||18.5 µg||15%|
|Calcium||12 mg||1.2 %|
|Fresh raw green jalapeno peppers in a market.
Photo courtesy: La Grande Farmers' market.
Fresh green and ripe jalapeno peppers can be readily available in US markets all around the season. During the winter months, they imported from Central American countries, especially from Mexico. You may find organic pods in the local farmer's markets.
Buy fresh, green, firm uniform-sized peppers featuring smooth, shiny skin and blunt ends. It is fine to have white markings on the shoulder ends for jalapenos. Avoid dry, wilt, and pods with cracks, cuts, and surface bruising.
At home, store them in a vegetable compartment inside the refrigerator set at high relative humidity. They keep well for up to a week. Pickled jalapenos can be stored for several months when stored in the fridge.
To prepare, wash jalapenos in cold water, and mop them dry using a soft absorbent towel. In general, wear gloves while handling hot variety chili peppers. Remove the stem. Chop or slice as you wish. Discard the seeds and central white placenta, if in case, to avoid excess hotness. Grilling under mild heat also reduces their hotness in addition to imparting a smoky flavor.
Jalapenos have successfully made an inroad into the US households since their usage found several interesting variations in cuisine like Tex-Mex cuisine (Texas-Mexican cuisine). Raw green, grilled, smoked, pickled jalapenos employed in a variety of Latin American, Spanish, Caribbean, and Asian cuisines.
Here are some serving tips:
|Pizza with jalapeno peppers, baby corn, and black olives topping.|
They can be used in place of bell peppers in the preparation of ratatouille, a traditional Occitanian recipe.
They can be experimented with other fruits and vegetables to make salsa, guacamole, chutney, and salads.
Split halfway lengthwise, remove seeds and stuff with sausage, cheese, etc., to prepare stuffed-jalapenos (jalapeno poppers).
Mexican and Tex-Mex American cuisine chiefly pivot around smoke-dried jalapenos, known as chipotle.
Add jalapeno rings as pizza toppings.
Pickled jalapenos are eaten with sandwiches, tortilla, burgers, etc.
Jalapeno peppers are one of the common ingredients featuring in mouthwatering Tex-Mex cuisine, nachos, chili con quiso, fajita, etc.
They also add distinctive flavor and spiciness to vegetable stews, poultry, meat and seafood dishes.
As in other hot chili peppers, jalapenos also contain an active component in them, capsaicin, which gives a strong spicy, pungent character. Even a few bits may cause severe irritation and burning sensation in the mouth, tongue, and throat.
Capsaicin in jalapeno peppers initially elicits inflammation when it comes in contact with the mucosa of the oral cavity, throat, and stomach, and may soon elicit a severe burning sensation that is perceived as ‘hot’ through free nerve endings embedded in the mucosa. Eating cold yogurt dilutes capsaicin concentration, prevents its contact with stomach walls, and thus may help reduce burning pain.
Avoid touching eyes with chili-pepper contaminated fingers. If so, rinse eyes thoroughly with cold water to reduce irritation.
Like in chilies, jalapeno peppers may aggravate existing gastritis, stomach ulcer, and gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) conditions.
Prolong consumption of old, spoiled chilies would pose the risk of exposure to certain chemical compounds like aflatoxin (fungal mold), which have been known to cause stomach, liver, and colon cancers. (Medical disclaimer).
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USDA National Nutrient Database. (opens in new window)
Agri Life Extension-Texas A&M System. (Opens in new window)