Radish is one of the nutritious root-vegetables featured in both raw salads as well as in main recipes. This widely used root vegetable belongs to the family of Brassica. In Chinese culture, radish along with cabbage and soybean curd (tofu) has been believed as healthful and sustenance food. A popular Chinese proverb goes like this, "eating pungent radish and drinking hot tea, let the starved doctors beg on their knees."
The vegetable is thought to have originated in the mainland China centuries ago and today, it is one of the widely cultivated crop throughout the world. Botanical name: Raphanus sativus.
|Red globe radishes
|Winter daikon displayed in a market.
Photo courtesy: garysoup
Radishes can come in different forms; widely varying in size, color and crop duration. They can be broadly categorized into four main types depending up on the crop season; summer, fall, winter, and spring. Growers classify them by their shapes, colors, and sizes, such as black or white colored with round or elongated roots.
The sharp, pungent flavor of radish comes from "isothiocyanate" compound in them, varying from mild in case of white-icicles to very hot in red globe and other pigmented varieties. Tender top greens of radish are also eaten as leafy-greens in some parts of the world.
Daikon or Japanese radish is native to Asia. It is generally grown during winter months and features elongated smooth, icy-white roots.
|Black spanish radish.||Green Chinese radish.||Purple varieties.
Photo courtesy: kthread
Black Spanish radishes are peppery and more flavorful than their white counterparts.
Green radish is native to Northern China region. Its outer peel near the top stem end features leafy-green color which, gradually changes to white color near the lower tip. Inside, its flesh has beautiful jade green color, sweet and less pungent flavor.
Watermelon radishes have watermelon like flesh inside. They are less peppery but mildly sweet something similar to that of white-icicle varieties.
When left to grow for longer than the usual root-harvest period, all kinds of radish bear small flowers, which subsequently develop into edible fruit pods. Podding or a rat-tailedradish is a type of seed-pod variety grown exclusively for their long rat-tail like tapering edible pods. The pods feature a mixture of mild radish flavor and spiciness.
They are one of very low calorie root vegetables. Fresh root provides just 16 calories per 100 g. Nonetheless; they are a very good source of anti-oxidants, electrolytes, minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber.
Radish, like other cruciferous and Brassica family vegetables, contains isothiocyanate anti-oxidant compound called sulforaphane. Studies suggest that sulforaphane has proven role against prostate, breast, colon and ovarian cancers by virtue of its cancer-cell growth inhibition, and cyto-toxic effects on cancer cells.
Fresh roots are good source of vitamin C; provide about 15 mg or 25% of DRI of vitamin C per 100 g. Vitamin-C is a powerful water soluble anti-oxidant required by the body for synthesis of collagen. It helps the body scavenge harmful free radicals, prevention from cancers, inflammation and help boost immunity.
In addition, they contain adequate levels of folates, vitamin B-6, riboflavin, thiamin and minerals such as iron, magnesium, copper and calcium.
Further, they contain many phytochemicals like indoles which are detoxifying agents and zea-xanthin, lutein and beta carotene, which are flavonoid antioxidants. Their total antioxidant strength, measured in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC value), is 1736 µmol TE/100 g.
|Fresh radishes in a market.||Korean- radish.
Note for its large size.
In general, radishes can be available year-around with peak season during winter and spring. Daikons are most flavorful and juicy during winter.
Look for the roots that feature fresh, stout and firm in texture. Their top greens also should be fresh, and feature crispy green without any yellow, shriveled leaves. Avoid roots that have cracks or cuts on their surface. Look carefully for the change in their texture and color. Yellowness indicated the stock is old. If the root yields to pressure and soft, the interior likely be pithy instead of crispy.
Once at home, remove their top greens since they rob nutrients off the roots if left intact. Then wash thoroughly in clean water to rid off surface dust and soil. Store them in a zip pouch or plastic bag in the refrigerator where they remain fresh for up to a week.
Both root and top greens are employed for cooking. Peeling may be avoided as the anti-oxidant allyl-isothiocyanates, which gives a peppery pungent flavor to radish, are thickly concentrated in the peel. Just wash the root thoroughly, trim the tip ends, and if you have to peel, then gently pare away superficial thin layer only.
Here are some serving tips:
|Watermelon radish slices. Photo courtesy: Neeta||Elongated red skin radishes.|
In French breakfast, radishes are served with sweet-butter and salt.
The roots are mixed with other vegetables in the preparation of steamed, stir fried or sauteed recipes in many regions.
In North India and Pakistan, the root is grated and mixed with spice and seasonings and stuffed inside bread to prepare "mooli parantha."
Pickled daikon (kimchi) is a traditional Korean speciality.
Radish pods (moongre in India) are eaten raw in salads or in stir-fries in many parts of Asia.
Radishes may contain goitrogens, plant-based compounds found in cruciferous and Brassica family vegetables like cauliflower, broccoli, etc. Goitrogens may cause swelling of thyroid gland and should be avoided in individuals with thyroid dysfunction. However, they may be used liberally in healthy persons. (Medical disclaimer).
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Further Reading and Resources:
1. USDA National Nutrient Database. (opens new window)
2. Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page- Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk (Link opens in new window).
3. Vegetable crops production guide -PDF
4. Antioxidant Functions of Sulforaphane: a Potent Inducer of Phase II Detoxication Enzymes J. W. FAHEY and P. TALALAY.