Unique for its appearance and flavor, mangosteen is often revered as "the Queen" of tropical fruits, particularly in the South-East Asian regions. This exotic, round, purple color fruit is quite popular for its snow-white, juicy, delicious arils all of the Asian countries, and in recent years by the European and American fruit lovers as well!
Botanically, it is the fruit belonging to the family of Clusiaceae, of the genus: Garcinia. Scientific name: Garcinia mangostana. Known as "Mangkhud- (มังคุด)" in Thai, Thailand is the largest producer and exporter of mangosteens.
|Purple mangosteen. (Garcinia Mangostana). Note deep purple fruit with light green calyx.||Fresh fruits in the market. Photo courtesy: goosmurf.|
Mangosteen plant is an evergreen, upright tree reaching about 20- 60 ft in height. It commonly found in tropical rainforests of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines as well as in some cultivated orchards in Sri Lanka, and India, where annual precipitation and relative humidity are favorable for its growth. Fresh purple fruits can be available in the markets from June until October.
Each tree bears several deep-purple, round shape fruits capped with light green calyx at the stem end. Completely matured fruit measures about 3-7 cm in diameter. Its tough outer rind is about 7-12 mm thick which contains bitter yellow latex that stains clothes black.
Internally; it features 4 to 10 juicy, snow-white, soft, fleshy, triangular segments as in oranges. Each segment may carry 1-4 off-white colored seeds. Seeds are inedible and bitter in taste. The flavor of the fruit can be best described as sweet, mildly tangy, fragrant, and delicious.
|Lemon-drop, and African mangosteens (Imbe). The fruits are smaller than purple ones. Photo: I like plants|
Different species of Garcinia grown all around the Southeast Asia, Africa, and South America all along the tropical belt. Cherapu or Button mangosteen (Garcinia prainiana) is native to Malaysia. It features somewhat flat, mandarin orange-like shape with a thin rind that can be peeled very easily by hand, again as in oranges.
Lemon drop mangosteens (Garcinia madruno) are small size (2-4 cm diameter) fruits, native to Malayan peninsula.
African mangosteen or Imbe (Garcinia livingstonei) is native to West Africa. They are slightly larger than lemon drop type.
Delicious and juicy, mangosteen is one of the popular tropical fruits. It comprises of an impressive list of essential nutrients which required for normal growth and development and overall nutritional well-being.
It is moderately low in calories (63 calories per 100 g) and contains no saturated fats or cholesterol. Nonetheless, it is rich in dietary fiber (100 g provides about 13% of RDA).
Mangosteen is good source of vitamin-C and provides about 12% of RDA per 100 g. Vitamin-C is a powerful water soluble antioxidant. Consumption of fruits rich in vitamin-C helps the human body develop resistance to combat viral flu and help scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free-radicals.
Fresh fruit is a mild source of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, niacin, and folates. These vitamins are acting as cofactors the help body metabolize carbohydrates, protein, and fats.
Further, it also contains a splendid amount of minerals like copper, manganese, and magnesium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids and helps control heart rate, and blood pressure, thus, it offers protection against stroke and coronary heart diseases.
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Total Fat||0.58 g||3%|
|Dietary Fiber||1.8 g||4.5%|
|Pantothenic acid||0.032 mg||<1%|
|Vitamin A||35 IU||1%|
|Vitamin C||2.9 mg||5%|
Mangosteens can be available fresh during summer months. Completely matured, deep purple color fruits are either picked up by hand or using a hook-and-basket method as in mangoes, carefully handling without damaging them. Injury to the outer skin results in percolation of bitter-latex into the edible flesh turning the whole fruit bitter and inedible.
Mangosteen is now readily available in the supermarkets across the United States. While buying, look for fresh fruits that feel heavy in hand with firm green calyx at the stem end, and clean, bright purple outer surface since they signal new arrival from East Asian orchards. Avoid those appearing dry and blotched skins as they may indicate old stock.
At home, place ripe fruits in a cool well-ventilated place where they keep well for up to two weeks. For extended keeping-quality, store them in the refrigerator.
Wash fruit in water to remove surface dust. Fresh fruit has a thick, soft rind, quite like in pomegranate but thicker in size. In general, the fruit is scored through the rind around an equatorial circumferential fashion using a paring knife, and its upper half pulled up gently using the thumb to unveil sweet, snow-white arils inside.
Prolonged exposure to hot conditions may cause its outer rind dry, brittle and may pose problems while peeling its rind.
|Interior; mangosteen. Note for the snow-white segments (arils).|
Here are some serving tips:
Fresh mangosteens are wonderfully delicious. Enjoy this exotic juicy fruit all alone without any additions.
Mangosteen juice is refreshing thirst-quenching cool drink to beat the summer heat.
Mangosteen clafouti prepared using cornflour, and coconut milk is a delicious dessert.
<<-Back to Fruits from Mangosteen. Visit here for an impressive list of all variety of fruits with complete illustrations of their nutrition facts and health benefits.
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Further reading and Resources:
Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page-Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk.