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Plums nutrition facts

Wonderfully delicious and juicy, plums botanically belongs to the Rosaceae family of "drupe" fruits in the genus, Prunus. Other fellow Prunus fruits include peaches, nectarine, almonds, and damson. Scientific name: Prunus domestica.

The plant is best described as small tree or large shrub. It is widely cultivated at commercial scale in the United States, Europe, Japan and China. Several cultivars of plums are grown all over the world which differ in their color, size and growth characteristics. Generally, each variety of the plum tree bears numerous, almost uniform sized berries between May and September months.

plum fruits a plum
Fresh fruits in a tray A plum, close view.

plum plant
Plums!. Note for white bloom on fruit surface.
Photo courtesy: brankomaster

Plum is about the size of medium-sized tomato, measuring about 5-6 cm in diameter and weigh about 50-70 g. It has central umblicated depression at the stem end. Internally, its pulp is juicy, succulent and vary widely from creamy yellow, crimson, light-blue or light-green in color depending up on the cultivar type.

Being a "drupe" family fruit, plum features a centrally placed single, smooth, flat but hard pit. Seeds are inedible.

Plums have sweet and tart taste with pleasant aroma. Some of common cultivars are: cherry plum, damson, blackthorn plum.

Health benefits of Plums

  • Plums are low in calories (46 calories per 100 g) and contain no saturated fats; however, they hold numerous health promoting compounds, anti-oxidants, minerals, and vitamins.

  • Certain health benefiting compounds present in the plums such as dietary fiber, sorbitol, and isatin has been known to help regulate smooth functioning of the digestive system, and thereby, help relieve constipation problems.

  • Total antioxidant strength of plums measured in terms of ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) is 6259 µmol TE/100 g. Fresh berries are a moderate source of vitamin C which is also a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents, counter inflammation and scavenge harmful free radicals.

  • Fresh plums, especially yellow Mirabelle type, are a moderate source of vitamin A and beta-carotene. Vitamin A is essential for good eyesight. It is also required for maintaining healthy mucusa and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin A has found to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

  • The fruit is also good in health promoting flavonoid poly phenolic antioxidants such as lutein, cryptoxanthin and zea-xanthin in significant amounts. These compounds help act as scavengers against oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging and various disease processes. Zea-xanthin, an important dietary carotenoid selectively absorbed into the retinal macula lutea where it is thought to provide antioxidant and protective UV light-filtering functions.

  • Plums are plentiful in minerals like potassium, fluoride and iron. Iron is required for red blood cell formation. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.

  • In addition, the berries are a moderate sources in B-complex groups of vitamins such as niacin, vitamin B-6, and pantothenic acid. These vitamins acts as cofactors help the body metabolize carbohydrates, protein and fats. They also provide about 5% RDA levels of vitamin K. Vitamin K is essential for many clotting factors function in the blood as well as in bone metabolism and help reduce Alzheimer's disease in the elderly.

Selection and storage

Plums can be available year around, but they are at their best between May until September. In the stores, look for fresh fruits featuring rich color and may still have a slight whitish "bloom" on their surface indicating fresh harvest.

Avoid those ones with excessively soft, or with cuts or bruises. Ripe fruits just yield to gentle pressure and feature a sweet aroma.

Slightly hard but mature plums can be kept at room temperature until they completely ripen. Once ready, they can be placed inside the refrigerator but should be brought back to room temperature before being consumed in order to enjoy their rich natural flavor. Dry plums called "prunes," can be stored at room temperature for few days.

Preparation and serving method

Wash plums in cold running water just before using. Fresh ripe plum can be enjoyed as is, with its peel.

plum cut section
Cut section and pit.

Incise lengthwise deep into the flesh until its hard seed resistance felt, and then remove the pit. Skin may be peeled off using a paring knife as in apples. However, its peel not only provides good fiber content but also carry some of health benefiting anti-oxidant pigments. Therefore, just wash the fruit and enjoy without discarding the peel. They can also be baked or stewed.

Here are some serving tips:

  • Plum sections can be a great addition to salads.

  • The fruits are being used in the preparation of pie, desserts, jams, and jellies.

  • They can also be used in a variety of recipes and are usually baked or poached.

  • Dried plums, in general known as prunes, can be added to muffins, cakes, ice-creams, etc., as in other dry fruits like raisins, apricots and figs.

Safety profile

Plums contain oxalic acid, a naturally-occurring substance found in some fruits and vegetables, which may crystallize as oxalate stones in the urinary tract in some people. Therefore, people with known oxalate urinary tract stones are advised to avoid eating plums. Adequate intake of water is advised to maintain normal urine output even if these individuals want to eat them. (Medical disclaimer).

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Further Resources:

1. USDA National Nutrient Database.

2. Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page- Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk.

1. Purdue University.

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