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Chia seeds nutrition facts

Does chia seeds are packed with all the nutrients to label them as numero uno, ultimate foodgrains? Alternatively, are they just another novel entrant to the spectrum of food items so-called "superfoods"?

Chia is a tiny, oblong shaped, oilseed consumed as one of the staples by the ancient Aztecs. The crop, in fact, was cultivated in the same measure to corn and amaranth by native Mexicans. Many nutrition experts believe chia (Salvia hispanica. L) top the list of functional foods because of its wholesome nutritional properties. In fact, nutrition planners are looking up at chia as a single wholesome source of phytonutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids (α -Linolenic acid), antioxidants, minerals, vitamins and dietary fiber composed in right proportions.

Botanically, chia is a low-growing herb in the mint family of plants. Scientific name: Salvia hispanica.

chia seeds- Salvia hispanica
Chia seeds.
photo courtesy: Stacy Spensely

Chia (Salvia hispanica) is a small, annual, drought-tolerant, flowering herb. It flourishes well under sandy, fertile soils.

chia seeds
Chia seeds-close up view.

The Salvia hispanica plant can grow up to a meter in height, and bears broad, green leaves with serrated margins. Purple, pink-violet flowers in spikes appear after about four months after seedling.

Chia seeds come in variegated colors depending upon cultivar type and may vary in from black, brown to off-white. Its seeds measure about 1 mm in diameter and resemble like miniature pinto beans. Its smooth outer cover is made up of hygroscopic mucilage coat which absorbs water and swells up several times the original size.

Health benefits of chia seeds

  • Chia seeds compose almost all of the essential nutrients that deem critical to optimum growth and development such as protein, omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals at right proportions.

  • Being an oilseed; chia is rich in calories. 100 g seeds provide 388 calories. However, much of its calories come from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUF). Chia seeds compose excellent proportion of omega-3 to 6 poly-unsaturated fats; in the recommended ratio of 1:4.

  • The essential omega 3-fatty acid in chia is α -linolenic acid (ALA). Studies found that omega-3 fatty acids such as ALA by virtue of their anti-inflammatory actions help lower blood pressure, coronary artery disease, strokes and breast, colon, and prostate cancers risks. Adequate quantities of omega-3's in the diet may be essential for normal development and maturation of nervous system in infants and young children.

  • Chia seeds compose of many health benefiting antioxidants namely ferulic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, etc.

  • 100 g seeds provide about 91% of daily recommended intake levels of dietary fiber. The outer coat of the seeds consists of water-soluble mucilage, a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP), which swells up several times and acquires gel-like consistency. Mucilage helps in smooth digestion and bowel movements.

  • Chia is a gluten-free grain. People with known sensitivity to gluten sensitivity or celiac's disease can safely include in their diet.

  • Chia are one of the low-glycemic index foods, and according to Nutritiondata.com has a fullness factor of 2.8. Foods that are low in glycemic index ensure effective regulation of daily blood glucose levels. Substitution of chia to rice and other cereal grains may benefit in individuals with diabetes.

  • The seeds are excellent source of vitamins like niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, folic acid. Niacin is an essential B-complex vitamin found abundantly in them; nearly more than twice the amount found in sesame seeds. 100 g of chia provides about 8.83 mg or 55% of daily required levels of niacin. Niacin helps reduce LDL-cholesterol levels in the blood. Besides, it enhances GABA (γ amino butyric acid) activity inside the brain which in turn helps reduce anxiety, and neurosis.

  • The seeds are good sources of many essential minerals. Calcium, phosphorous, iron, manganese, and magnesium particularly concentrated in the chia. Many of these minerals play a vital role in bone mineralization, red blood cell production, enzyme synthesis, as well as regulation of cardiac, and skeletal muscle activities.

Just a few tablespoonful of chia a day provides enough recommended levels of phenolic anti-oxidants, minerals, vitamins, and protein.

See the table below for in depth analysis of nutrients:

Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica), whole, dried, Nutritional value per 100 g.

(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
Principle Nutrient Value Percentage of RDA
Energy 486 Kcal 24%
Carbohydrates 42.12 g 32%
Protein 16.54 g 30%
Total Fat 30.74 g 102%
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Dietary Fiber 34.4 g 91%
Vitamins
Folates 49 μg 12%
Niacin 8.83 mg 55%
Riboflavin 0.17 mg 13%
Thiamin 0.62 mg 52%
Vitamin A 54 IU 2%
Vitamin C 1.6 2%
Vitamin E 0.5 mg 3%
Electrolytes
Sodium 16 mg 1%
Potassium 407 mg 9%
Minerals
Calcium 631 mg 63%
Copper 0.924 mg 102%
Iron 7.72 mg 97%
Magnesium 335 mg 83.5%
Manganese 2.723 mg 118%
Phosphorus 860 mg 223%
Selenium 55.2 μg 1%
Zinc 4.58 mg 42%

Selection and storage

In its natural field, chia harvested and processed in the same way as that of amaranth, and quinoa. Traditionally, its mature seed heads cut, dried under sunlight, threshed, and winnowed to remove chaff in order to obtain fresh chia seeds.

Chia seeds are small, about pinhead size, deep brown in color and feature smooth, shiny surface, measuring about 1 mm in diameter. Salba chia seeds are the genetic variant of wild chia and come in white color. Chia can be stored in good condition for several months to years in polybags/bins. Ground chia, however, should be stored inside an airtight box, and placed in a cool dark place where it can store for few weeks.


Culinary uses

Chia can be readily available all around the season in the market. Cleaned whole seeds, and ground flour in airtight packs, bulk bins are displayed for sale in these stores.

Here are some serving tips:

  • Chia can be used in several ways. Aztecs and Mayans happen to drink chia mixed in hot water and prepare thin gruel. In the present day Mexico, chia seeds consumed in many novel ways. Chia fresco or agua de chia is a refreshing summer drink made of ground chia, lemon juice, and sugar.

  • Toasted seeds can be added to bread, cookies, muffins, etc.

  • Sprinkle whole or ground chia over yogurt, fruit smoothies, milkshakes, etc.


Safety profile

Chia seeds have been found to have no known intolerance or allergic reactions in humans. Pregnant and small children can safely consume the seeds in small quantities. (Medical Disclaimer).



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Further Resources:

  1. USDA National Nutrient Database.

  2. Plant profile for Savia hispanica (chia).

  3. Chia (Salvia hispanica): a systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration.

  4. University of Kentucky cooperative extension service-pdf.

  5. Nutritiondata.com.




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