Pseudocereals are tiny, grain-like seeds (fruits) of dicotyledonous plant species employed much like as cereals in the food preparations.
There is a renewed interest in the cultivation of super-grain crops as potential source of special dietary uses, particularly in the people who are allergic to staple cereals like wheat. The fact that pseudocereals employed as cereals and have a higher nutritional value; they can supplement or may completely replace common cereal grains (rice, corn, or wheat) as staple food sources.
Pseudo-cereals closely related to legume plants and produce dry fruits which are labeled in different terms as seeds, achenes and grains.
Pseudo-cereals are dicotyledonous, whereas common cereal crops like wheat are monocotyledonous.
Being members of legume family of plants, their grains compose proportionately more bran fraction than that in cereals.
Greens of pseudocereals also used as nutritive leafy vegetables. However, grass cereals foliage contains higher non-starch polysaccharides, and therfore, unsuitable for use in humans.
Pseudocereals possess similar calorific value as cereal grains. Nonetheless, they carry higher nutritional value than cereal grains in terms of quality of amino acid (protein) composition, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals.
Pseudocereals made up of higher percentage of bran fraction to endosperm than common cereals. Bran composes chiefly of fiber, protein and unsaturated fatty acids.
Pseudocereals do not contain gluten protein unlike in cereal grains like wheat, barley, etc. For the same reason, they are the best alternatives for incorporation into the diet for celiac disease patients.
The protein composition of pseudocereals varies from 13-17%; almost the same as that in cereals. The nutritional value of pseudocereals is mainly connected to their proteins that are an important group of biomacromolecules involved in physiological functions.
Pseudocereals compose higher proportions of essential amino acids than cereal grains. Lysine, leucine, tryptophan, etc are among the 10 essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesized in th human body and hence must be provided in the diet.
Studies suggest that pseudocereal´s protein has high bioavailability,high protein efficiency ratio (PER) and a high apparent digestibility. Quinoa's protein quality improved by pre-washing to remove saponin.
Carbohydrates in these grains chiefly comes from complex starch like amylopectin. Besides, the amylose content i them is lower than that in other cereal starches. Hence, pseudo-cereals can be a beneficial staples even in diabetics.
Pseudo-cereal grains do not contain gluten protein. Therefore, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth can be recommended for people with celiac disease.
The lipid content of quinoa and amaranth is between 2 and 3 times higher than in other cereals such as maize and wheat
They compose adequate essential fatty acids like α-linolenic acid (ALA) which found helpful in the prevention of many degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
The seeds are also an abundant source of polyphenolic flavonoids. The main polyphenolic antioxidants present in them are kaempferol and quercetin glycosides.
Being the members of legume family, they brim with excellent concentartions of vitamin-E (α-tocopherol). Vitamin-E acts as a natural defense against lipid oxidation, fights against free radicals and pevents cell damage and injury.
The pseudo-grains are indeed an excellent sources of the B-complex group of vitamins such as folates (B9), pyridoxine, thiamin, riboflavin and patothenic acid.
Besides, they endowed with high concentration of minerals like calcium, iron, copper, potassium, manganese, and magnesium. These minerals play a vital role in many metabolic functions in the humans. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure. The human body uses manganese as a cofactor for the potent antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Generally, the application of chemical fertilizers and insecticides on pseudocereals crops is less intense in contrast to cereals crops. However, try to buy organic certified grains from the authentic agencies.
Gains like amaranth has long shelf-life and stay well for several months and sometimes for years when stored adequately in cool, dry place, away from humid environments.
If you are buying flour, purchase freshly milled product that comes in air-tight bins and packages.
Buckwheat, Amaranth and quinoa grains have been used in a wide variety of foods. From the whole grain, tasteful soups, sweets, beverages, sauces, porridges, and soufflés can be prepared; boiled grains can be used as rice in pilaf, porridge, risotto, etc.
rutin (quercetin rutinoside) in small quantities in buckwheats. Rutin has been found to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-platelet aggregation (blood thinner) functions, in experimental models and may interact with routine medications.
Unpolished (unwashed) quinoa seed contains in its outer cover saponin, a triterpenoid compound. Amaranth contains releatively less amount of this subsatnces while Kaniwa does not any. Saponin has a bitter soap-like taste which when consumed might result in stomach pain, flatulence, and laxative diarrhea. (Medical disclaimer).
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