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Kiwi fruit Nutrition facts

Kiwi fruit, also known as Chinese gooseberry, is one of the delicious fruits full of promising health-promoting phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. This widely recognized, wonderfully unique berry is native to the Eastern Chinese "Shaanxi" province. And for the same reason, this exotic fruit is recognised as the National fruit of China.

Kiwifruit plant is a semitropical, deciduous, large woody vine belonging to the family of Actinidiaceae in the Genus, Actinidia. Scientific name: Actinidia chinensis.

chinese gooseberries
Kiwifruit-Actinidia chinensis.

The journey of the humble gooseberry from mainland China to Oceania, and thence to different regions is quite fascinating! During the early years of the twentieth-century, kiwifruit seeds were carried by the missionaries to New Zealand, where it has become a naturalized crop. It spread all over the world from here and is now grown on a commercial scale in Europe and as far as California.

During each season which lasts from September until November, the kiwi vine bears many oval-shaped, fuzzy, brown fruits. Each kiwi berry measures approximately a large size hen’s egg and weighs up to 125 g. Internally; its emerald-green flesh is soft, lush, embedded with rows of tiny, black, edible seeds. Its texture is similar to strawberry or sapodilla, and the flavor resembles a blend of strawberry and pineapple fruits.

Apart from the typical green kiwifruit variety, several other cultivars were also grown in the orchards. "Hardy kiwifruit" (A. arguta) also known as the baby kiwi, is smaller than "Fuzzy kiwifruit" (A. deliciosa). Its size can be compared to that of a large grape, with smooth, edible, green skin. Inside, the "hardy kiwi fruit" resembles "fuzzy kiwi-fruit" in color, texture, but possess rather more intense flavor and sweetness.

Golden Kiwifruit, developed by the gricultural research department in New Zealand using hybrid technique, has a smooth, sparse hairs, bronze skin, a pointed cap at one end and distinctive golden-yellow flesh with less tart and more tropical flavor than green kiwifruit. Commercially, it commands a higher market value than conventional green kiwifruit.

Health benefits of Kiwi fruit

  1. Kiwifruit is moderate caloried berry; 100 g of kiwi berry holds 61 calories, which is comparable to that of grapes. Nonetheless, it has many health-benefiting antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, and fiber.

  2. It is a good source of soluble dietary fiber (3.8 g per 100 g of fruit OR 10% of RDA), which brand it as a good bulk laxative. The dietary fiber helps to protect the colon mucosa by decreasing exposure time to toxins as well as binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon.

  3. The fruit is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin-C; providing about 154% of the DRI (daily-recommended intake). Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals.

  4. Kiwi fruit contains very healthy levels of vitamin-A, vitamin-E, vitamin-K and flavonoid antioxidants such as β-carotene, lutein, and xanthins. Vitamin-K has a potential role in bone mass building by promoting osteoblastic activity in the bone. It also has established a role in Alzheimer's disease patients by limiting neuronal damage in the brain.

  5. Total antioxidant strength measured regarding oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of kiwifruit (gold, raw) is 1210 µmol TE/100 g.

  6. Research studies suggest that certain chemical substances in kiwi-fruit functions as blood thinner function similar to aspirin; thus, it helps prevent clot formation inside the blood vessels and protect them from stroke and heart-attack risk.

  7. Kiwi-fruit seeds are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids. Research studies show that consumption of foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and help prevent the development of ADHD, autism, and other developmental disorders in children.

  8. Fresh kiwi fruit is a very rich source of heart-healthy electrolyte "potassium." 100 g contains 312 mg or 7% of daily recommended levels of this electrolyte. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that help regulate heart rate and blood pressure by countering malefic effects of sodium.

  9. It also contains good amounts of minerals like manganese, copper, iron, and magnesium. Manganese used in the human body as a co-factor for the powerful antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase. Magnesium is an important bone-strengthening mineral like calcium.

See the table below for in depth analysis of nutrients:

Kiwi fruit nutrition profile (Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia chinensis)), Fresh, values per 100 g. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)
Principle Nutrient Value Percent of RDA
Energy 61 Kcal 3%
Carbohydrates 14.66 g 11%
Protein 1.14 g 2%
Total Fat 0.52 g 2%
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Dietary Fiber 3 g 8%
Folates 25 µg 6%
Niacin 0.341 mg 2%
Riboflavin 0.025 mg 2%
Thiamin 0.027 mg 2%
Vitamin A 87 IU 3%
Vitamin C 92.7 mg 154%
Vitamin E 1.46 mg 10%
Vitamin K 40.3 µg 34%
Sodium 3 mg 0%
Potassium 312 mg 7%
Calcium 34 mg 3.5%
Copper 0.130 mg 14%
Iron 0.31 mg 4%
Magnesium 17 mg 4%
Manganese 0.098 mg 4%
Zinc 0.14 mg 1%
Carotene-ß 52 µg --
Crypto-xanthin-ß 0 µg --
Lutein-zeaxanthin 122 µg --

Selection and storage

Kiwifruit season begins in September and lasts until November. Though they can be available most of the year, they are at their best from August until December. Only mature fruits should be harvested and handled carefully from the vine.

Unripe berries feature hard, starchy, inedible and closely resemble that of sapodilla (sapote) fruit.

Place raw kiwi-fruits in a plastic bag for 4-6 days to ripen. Keeping them in a paper bag with an apple, banana or pears will help to augment ripening process.

In the stores, choose kiwi featuring intact skin, without any surface blemishes, or cuts. Ripe-kiwis yield to gentle pressure when pressed with the thumb. Once ripen, they have a short shelf life and damage early if kept open at room temperature. For extended shelf-life, keep them in the refrigerator set at the proper humidity.

Preparation and serving methods

Fresh, delicious, juicy kiwifruit can be eaten all alone. Wash under cold running water. Its peel is edible and nutritious. Once cut, the slices should be eaten soon as they become soggy if left open in the air.

kiwifruit-chinese gooseberry kiwifruit-cut sections
Kiwifruit-Actinidia chinensis. Note for fuzzy, brown outer surface. Kiwifruit sections. Note for tiny black seeds arranged in radiating fashion. Its emerald green flesh is soft and juicy.

Here are some serving tips:

  • Kiwifruits are so delicious that they can be eaten as they are without any seasoning/additions. Enjoy their rich, unique flavor.

  • Serve sliced kiwifruit and strawberries with yogurt, whose flavors naturally complementing each other.

  • Mixture of sliced kiwi fruit and pineapple together to make a sauce, add it to marinate chicken breast and boil. The active compound, actinidin in kiwi fruit helps tenderizing meat products.

  • The fruit is also employed in the preparation of New Zealand’s popular dessert, Pavlova.

  • It is also used in the preparation of muffins, cheesecake, party-cakes, pie, juice, and jellies.

  • Dried kiwi slices enjoyed as snack, added in fruit salads/icecreams.

Safety profile

Allergic reactions to kiwi fruit are rare. Pregnant mothers and children can safely consume them.

Altough eating kiwi skin does not cause any untoward effects, many find it undesirable and discard the skin. Baby kiwi's can be enjoyed with skin as in table grapes and kumquats.

(Medical disclaimer).

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Further reading and Resources:

  1. USDA National Nutrient Database.

  2. Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page- Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk.

  3. New Zealand kiwifruit growers.

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