“The king of the fruits," mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruits with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and heath promoting qualities, making it numero-uno among new functional foods, often labeled as “super fruits."
Mango is one of the delicious seasonal fruits grown in the tropics. The tree is believed to be originating in the sub-Himalayan plains of the Indian subcontinent. Botanically, this exotic fruit belongs to the family of Anacardiaceae, a family that also includes numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plants such as cashew, pistachio.
Scientific name: Mangifera Indica.
|Ripe mangoes-popularly known as Safeda in India.||Mangoes-Alphanso, known for rich taste and flavor.|
Mango is a tropical tree cultivated in many regions of India, and now its farming has been extended wide across the world in many continents.After flowering, its fruits grow at the end of a long, string-like peduncle, with sometimes more than one fruit to a peduncle.
Each fruit measures 5 to 15 cms in length and about 4 to 10 cms in width, and has typical “mango” shape, or sometimes oval or round. Its weight ranges from 150 g to around 750 g. Outer skin (pericarp) is smooth and is green in un-ripe mangoes but turns in ripe fruits into golden yellow, crimson red, yellow or orange-red depending upon the cultivar type. Fresh mango season lasts from April until August.
|Mango tree-Mangifera indica.|
Mango comes in different shapes and sizes depending upon cultivar types. Internally, its flesh (mesocarp) is juicy, orange-yellow in color with numerous soft fibrils radiating from its centrally placed flat, oval-shaped stone (enveloping a single large kidney-shaped seed). Its flavor is pleasant and rich and tastes sweet with a mild tartness. A high-quality mango fruit should feature no or very less fiber composition and minimal tartness. Mango seed (stone) may either has a single embryo or sometimes polyembryonic.
Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic flavonoid antioxidant compounds.
According to new research study, mango fruit has been found to protect from colon, breast, leukemia and prostate cancers. Several trial studies suggest that polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in mango are known to offer protection against breast and colon cancers.
Mango fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. 100 g of fresh fruit provides 765 IU or 25% of recommended daily levels of vitamin-A. Together; these compounds have been known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. Vitamin-A also required for maintaining healthy mucosa and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes is known to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.
Fresh mango is a good source of potassium. 100 g fruit provides 156 mg of potassium while just 2 mg of sodium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
It is also an excellent source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E. Consumption of foods rich in vitamin-C helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals. Vitamin B-6 or pyridoxine required for GABA hormone production within the brain. It also controls homocysteine levels within the blood, which may otherwise be harmful to blood vessels resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke.
Further, it composes moderate amounts of copper. Copper is a co-factor for many vital enzymes, including cytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Copper also required for the production of red blood cells.
Additionally, mango peel is also rich in phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants like carotenoids and polyphenols.
|Principle||Nutrient Value||Percentage of RDA|
|Total Fat||0.27 g||1%|
|Dietary Fiber||1.80 g||4.5%|
|Pantothenic acid||0.160 mg||1%|
|Pyridoxine (vit B-6)||0.134 mg||10%|
|Vitamin C||27.7 mg||46%|
|Vitamin A||765 IU||25.5%|
|Vitamin E||1.12 mg||7.5%|
|Vitamin K||4.2 µg||3.5%|
Mangos are seasonal fruits; fresh mango fruit season begins by March end when its rich fragrance heralds its arrival in the markets.
Mangoes usually harvested while they are green but perfectly matured. Unripe ones are extremely sour in taste. Organic mangoes are left to ripen on the tree; however, over-ripe fruits fall off from the tree and tend to get spoiled.
|Sindhuri (kesar) mangos||"Totapuri" variety mangos.|
In the store, mangoes come in various sizes and colors; therefore, select the one based on the serving size and variety of fruit you love to devour. “Alphonso” variety from India (Maharashtra state) and “sindhuri" (kesar) varieties from Pakistan are known for their uniqueness. Totapuri mangoes feature parrot-beak shape tips, smooth shiny and come in attractive green-yellow or orange colors. Totapuri varieties best eaten raw, or while just short of a full-ripe stage. Its pulp features a pleasant blend of sweet and tart taste with special mint or clove-like flavor depending on the cultivars. Several US cultivars such as Hayden and hybrids are also equally popular.
Choose ones with intact skin without any bruises or cuts. Unripe mangoes can be kept at room temperature for few days, and to ripen, keep them in paper covers. Ripe fruits should be stored in the refrigerator but never below 10° F (50°C). Bring back to normal temperature when the fruit is to be eaten to get the natural taste and flavor.
Wash mangoes in cold running water in order to remove dust/dirt and any surface chemical residue. Mop dry its outer skin using a soft cloth. Mango fruit should be eaten all alone without any seasonings/additions to experience its rich flavor.
Cut the fruit lengthwise into three pieces in such a way that the middle portion consists of husky seed. Then, slice through the skin to separate the skin from the pulp. Chop pulp into desired sections.
Alternatively, using a sharp knife, cut through the flesh on either side of the central seed (stone). This way, you get two big halves of a mango fruit and a central stone portion. Then, take one-half and score the flesh in a horizontal and vertical pattern taking care not to cut deep through the skin. Invert the whole half to push out the cubes as shown in the picture below:
Here are some serving tips:
|Delicious mango juice!||Green mango marmalade.|
Fresh mango cubes are a great addition to fruit salads.
Mango juice with ice cubes is a popular, delicious drink.
Mango fruit juice blended with milk as "mango milkshake." Mango fruit is also used to prepare jam, jelly, ice cream and in sweet-candy industries.
Unripe, raw, green mango has been in use in the preparation of pickles, jam (marmalade), and chutney in the Asian countries.
Mango fruit should be avoided in the diet in individuals on warfarin therapy. Mangoes, being high in vitamin-A, could result in potentiation of warfarin activity that may cause increased bleeding risk. (Reference link-Food and lifestyle interactions with Warfarin).
|Raw green mango. Note for white color pulp which turns into golden yellow color as the fruit ripens.|
Mango latex allergy, especially with raw, unripe mangoes is common in some sensitized individuals. Immediate reactions may include itchiness at the angle of the mouth, lips, and tip of the tongue. In some people, the reactions can be severe, with manifestations like swelling of the lips, ulceration at the mouth angles, respiratory difficulty, vomiting, and diarrhea.
This reaction develops because of the anacardic acid
present in raw, unripe mangoes. Cross-allergic reactions with other Anacardiaceae
family fruits like "cashew
apples" are quite common. Such events may be a rarity with completely
ripe fruits; however, people with known case of mango fruit allergy may
have to avoid eating them.
Mango fruit is an excellent source of vitamin A, carotene pigments, vitamins, and potassium.
Mango fruit should be avoided in the diet in individuals on warfarin therapy. Allergic manifestations after eating raw unripe mango is common.
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1. Mangifera indica-Agroforestry Net.
2. USDA - Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.
3. All about mangoes-National Mango Board.