Spearmint herb or garden mint or common mint has long been reputed for its characteristic aroma it imparts to the recipes it added to. The least pungent and subtle among the species of mint family, this unique herb is one of chef’s favorite culinary ingredients.
Garden Mint herb botanically belongs to the family of Lamiaceae, in the genus: Mentha. Scientific name: Mentha spicata.
|Spearmint herb. Note for
oval, deep green leaves
with serrated margins.
Photo courtesy: sandy austin
plant-as a pot herb.
Spearmint is a branching perennial herb of Mediterranean origin. It is widely used across Europe and in large parts of Asia and Africa in flavored drinks, salads, confectionary and as a garnish to recipes.
The herb grows easily under fertile, moist and loose soil conditions. It spreads through wide network of underground runners. Generally, small stems (divisions) are planted to propagate. It reaches about 75 cm in height, and bears oppositely arranged leaves all along its thick square stem. Spearmint leaves are deep green, deeply-veined, oval in shape with pointed ends and serrated margins. Slim pointed spikes of mauve flowers appear during late summer.
There are at least 20 species of Garden mint and their hybrids exist, most of them difficult to classify because of their variability and readiness to hybridize among each other. Here are some mint herbs apart from the popular peppermint and water mints;
Spearmint is pleasantly aromatic herb, packed with numerous health benefiting vitamins, antioxidants and phyto-nutrients.
Its leaves and herb parts carry essential oil, menthol. Unlike in peppermint, spearmint leaves compose only small amounts of menthol, 0.5% compared to that 40% in peppermint. Less menthol content would make this herb least pungent and subtly fragrant herb in the mint family.
The herb has low calories (about 43 calories per 100 g), and contains zero cholesterol.
The chief essential oil in spearmint is menthol. Other important chemical components of spearmint are a-pinene, ß-pinene, carvone, cineole, linalool, limonene, myrcene and caryophyllene. These compounds in mint help relieve fatigue and stress.
The herb parts are also very good in minerals like potassium, calcium, manganese, iron (148% of RDA), and magnesium. Iron is required for enzymes in cellular metabolism and synthesis of hemoglobin. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids that helps control heart rate and blood pressure. Manganese is utilized by the body as a co-factor for the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase.
Further, the herb is also rich in many antioxidant vitamins, including vitamin A (provides 4054 IU or 135% of RDA), beta-carotene, vitamin C, folates (26% of RDA), vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), riboflavin and thiamin.
The herb decoction is an excellent remedy for minor ailments such as headaches, nervous strain, fatigue and stress, as well as for the respiratory problems; help relieving asthma, bronchitis and catarrh.
It is very useful to deal with digestive problems, including nausea, flatulence and hiccups as it relaxes the stomach muscles.
The essential oil, menthol, has analgesic, local anaesthetic and counterirritant properties. Menthol also found application in the preparation of toothpaste and mouth refresheners.
On the skin, when used as cream or lotion, it may help relieve itching of pruritis, dermatitis, and hives.
Spearmint oil is used as blended massage oil and in the aromatic therapy to help relieve headaches, stress, fatigue, and nervous conditions and to relieve itching.
When take in limits, spearmint tea can be used safely in pregnancy. In women, it helps reduce unwanted hairs through its anti-androgenic properties.(Medical disclaimer)
Fresh spearmint leaves can be available all around the year. The herb is grown in much similar fashion like that of peppermint, basil, oregano, etc. It can be grown in pots, as garden herb or cultivated at a larger scale as a field crop for the purpose of extraction of essential oils. In general, its leaves are harvested just before flowering stage for culinary purposes. However, the whole plant may be gathered in full flower for distillation of essential oils.
In the herb store, spearmint leaves and stems, fresh or dried can be made available. Choose spearmint leaves that are fresh featuring bright green color with spearmint scent. Avoid wilted, yellow and floral leaves.
Once at home, wash the leaves in clean running water, pat dry with absorbent paper and store in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator for use in a near future.
|Dried leaves of spearmint herb.|
Dried spearmint is also preferred in dishes, especially in the preparation of teas/drinks. To dry, spread its leaves on a plastic sheet and allow to dry under shade. Thus dried herb parts should be stored inside an airtight container, stored in cool place away from sunlight.
Unlike other mint species, spearmint contains very minimal quantities in menthol; hence less harsh and pungent, making it one of the most preferred herbs in cooking, confectionary, and in health drinks.
Here are some serving tips:
|Spearmint herb tea.
Photo courtesy: tusnelda
Its fresh leaves, either chopped or ground, can be added in the salads.
It is good for making mint sauce. To prepare mint sauce, ground fresh mint leaves mixed with yogurt, cumin and little salt.
The herb is also used as flavoring agent in ice-creams, jams, cakes, jelly, etc.
Spearmint tea is a popular drink.
The herb is also used in cooking recipes. In general, it is added in small amounts, chopped or ground, to recipes at the final stages of cooking in order to retain its flavor and taste.
Handling mint herbs may cause skin rashes and irritation in some sensitized individuals and should be handled with care, using protective gloves. (Medical disclaimer).
<<-Back to Herbs from Spearmint. Visit here for an impressive list of nuts with complete illustrations of their nutrition facts and health benefits.
<<-Back to Home page
Visit here for very informative pages on:-
Research articles on nutrition.
1. USDA National Nutrient Database. (opens new window).
2. Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page-Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk (Link opens in new window).