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Cassava Nutrition facts

Cassava (yuca or manioc) is a nutty flavored, starch-tuber in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) of plants. It is thought to have originated from the South American forests. Its sweet, and chewy underground tuber is one of the traditional edible root vegetables. Indigenous people of many parts of Africa, Asia, and South American continents used it as a staple food source for centuries.

Together with other tropical roots and starch-rich foods like yam, taro, plantains, potato, etc., it too is an indispensable part of carbohydrate diet for millions of inhabitants living in these regions.

Some of the common names include manioc, or mandioca in Brazil, manihot, tapioca and yuca. Scientific name: Manihot esculenta (Crantz).

Cassava roots in a market. Photo courtesy: Karin Dalzeil

Cassava is a perennial plant that grows best under tropical, moist, fertile, and well-drained soils. The completely grown plant reaches about 2-4 m in height. In the fields, its cut-stem sections are planted in soil to propagate just as in the case of sugarcanes. After about 8-10 months of the plantation, long, globular roots or tubers grow downwards in a radial fashion, deep into the soil up to the depth of 2-4 feet.

cassava root
Cassava root.

Each tuber weighs one to several pounds depending upon the cultivar type. It features gray-brown, rough, woody textured skin. Interior meat is white, starch-rich, and sweet-flavored and should only be eaten after cooking.

Health Benefits of Cassava

  1. Cassava has nearly twice the calories than potatoes and is perhaps one of the highest-value calorie foods for any tropical starch-rich tubers and roots. 100 g root provides 160 calories. Their calorie value mainly comes from sucrose which accounts for more than 69% of total sugars. Amylose (16-17%) is another major source of complex carbohydrates.

  2. Cassava is very low in fats and protein than in cereals and pulses. Nonetheless, it has more protein than that of other tropical food sources like yam, potato, plantains, etc.

  3. As in other roots and tubers, cassava is also free from gluten. The gluten-free starch used in special food preparations for celiac disease patients.

  4. Young tender cassava (yuca) leaves are a good source of dietary proteins and vitamin K. Vitamin K has a potential role in bone strengthening by stimulating osteoblastic cell activity in the bones. It also has an established role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease patients by limiting neuronal damage in the brain.

  5. Cassava carries some of the valuable B-complex group of vitamins such as folates, thiamin, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin, and pantothenic acid.

  6. It is one of the chief sources of some essential minerals like zinc, magnesium, copper, iron, and manganese for many inhabitants of tropical belts. Also, it has adequate amounts of potassium (271 mg per 100g or 6% of RDA). Potassium is an important component of cells and body fluids that help regulate heart rate and blood pressure.

See the table below for in depth analysis of nutrients:

Cassava root (Manihot esculenta (L.) Crantz), raw, Nutrition Value per 100 g,
(Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)

Principle Nutrient Value Percent of RDA
Energy 160 Kcal 8%
Carbohydrates 38.06 g 29%
Protein 1.36 g 2.5%
Total Fat 0.28 g 1%
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Dietary Fiber 1.8 g 4%
Folates 27 µg 7%
Niacin 0.854 mg 5%
Pyridoxine 0.088 mg 7%
Riboflavin 0.048 mg 4%
Thiamin 0.087 mg 7%
Vitamin A 13 IU <1%
Vitamin C 20.6 mg 34%
Vitamin E 0.19 mg 1%
Vitamin K 1.9 µg 1.5%
Sodium 14 mg 1%
Potassium 271 mg 6%
Calcium 16 mg 1.6%
Iron 0.27 mg 3%
Magnesium 21 mg 5%
Manganese 0.383 mg 1.5%
Phosphorus 27 mg 4%
Zinc 0.34 mg 3%

Selection and storage

cassava field cassava and taro
Cassava plantation.
Photo courtesy: treesftf.
Taro and yuca, two common tropical starch-rich crops.
Photo courtesy: Caffe Vita.

Cassava roots can be readily available in the markets all over the seasons. Buy a well-formed, firm, cylindrical tuber that is heavy for its size. Cleaned and processed yuca, imported from Central America is available in the US markets. It is waxed, and therefore, appears bright and shiny.

Avoid old stocks as they are out of flavor and less appetizing. Do not buy if the tubers feature cuts, or breaks in the skin. Also, avoid those with mold, soft spots, and blemishes.

Fresh roots can be kept at room temperature for about 5-7 days. However, peeled and cut sections should be placed in cold water and stored in the refrigerator for up to three days.

Preparation and serving methods

Cassava should never be eaten raw as the root composes small quantities of cyanogenic glycosides, particularly hydroxycyanic acid. Cyanide compounds interfere with cellular metabolism by inhibiting the cytochrome oxidase enzyme inside the human body. Peeling followed by cooking ensures they are safe for consumption by removing these compounds.

Cassava roots are available in the USA supermarkets are waxed to help enhance their shelf life. To prepare, just wash the whole root in cold water, dry mop, and trim the ends. Cut into 2-3 inches long quarters. Using a paring knife, then peel its outer skin until you find white flesh inside. A vegetable peeler won't work since its skin is very tough. Trim away strings that run in its inner core. Yuca cut sections tend to turn brownish discoloration upon exposure to air as in potato, so place them immediately in a bowl of cold water.

Cassava is one of the common vegetables featuring a variety of everyday traditional dishes in many Caribbean, African, and Asia countries. Together with other tropical roots like yam, taro, plantains, potato, etc., it too is an integral part of the diet in these regions.

Here are some serving tips:

To make yuca safe for human consumption, boil the cut sections in salted water until tender for about 10-15 minutes. Drain and discard the water before using boiled cassava in various cooking recipes.

cassava recipes
Fried yuca cubes with fish; Brazilian dish. Photo: Jorge Andrade, And Cassava chips. Photo: Marita

  • Cassava tubers are familiar ingredients in fries, stew-fries, soups, and savory dishes all over the tropic regions.

  • In general, cassava sections are fried in oil until brown and crisp and served with salt, and pepper seasoning in many Caribbean islands as a snack.

  • Starch-rich yuca (manioc) pulp is sieved to prepare white pearls (tapioca-starch), popular as sabudana in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The beads employed in sweet pudding, savory fritters, sabudana-khichri, papad, etc.

  • Cassava flour is also used to make bread, cake, cookies, etc. in several Caribbean islands.

  • In Nigeria and Ghana, cassava flour is used in substitution for yams to make fufu (polenta), which is then savored with stews.

  • Cassava chips and flakes are also widely eaten as a snack.

Safety profile

Cassava root contains natural toxic cyanogenic glycoside compounds linamarin and methyl-linamarin. Injury to tuber releases linamarase enzyme from the ruptured cells, which then converts linamarin to poisonous hydrocyanic acid (HCN). Therefore, consumption of raw cassava root results in cyanide poisoning with symptoms of vomiting, nausea, dizziness, stomach pains, headache, and death. In general, cyanide content is substantially higher in its outer part and peel. While peeling lessens the cyanide content, sun drying, and soaking followed by boiling in salt-vinegar water results in evaporation of this compound and makes it safe for human consumption.

Prolong use of a monotonous cassava diet may lead to chronic illness like tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and Diabetes, especially among rural and tribal inhabitants who are purely engaged in the processing and consumption of cassava products. (Medical disclaimer).

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Further resources:

  1. Cassava- A guide to sustainable production-FAO. (Link opens in new window).

  2. USDA National Nutrient Database.

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