Papaya fruit s another gift of Mexicans to this world. This exotic fruit, also popular as pawpaw, is packed with numerous health benefiting nutrients. It is one of the favorites of fruit lovers for its nutritional, digestive, and medicinal properties. It probably thought to have originated in the Central Americas.
Papaya plant is grown extensively all over the tropical regions under cultivated farms for its fruits as well as for latex, papain, an enzyme that found wide applications in the food industry.
Botanically, the plant belongs to Caricaceae family of flowering plants, in the genus; Carica.
Scientific name: Carica papaya.
|Papaya fruit. Note for orange color pulp and black seeds grouped at the central hollow space.||Papaya plant. Note for ripe papaya fruit. Young, immature fruits developing at the
Photo courtesy: Kamoteus
Papaya tree bears many spherical or pear-shaped fruits clumped near its top end of the trunk. They come in variety of sizes ranging from 6-20 inches in length and 4-12 inches in diameter. An average-sized papaya weighs about a pound. The fruit is said to ripen when it yeilds to gentle thumb pressure, and its skin turned amber to orange hue.
Inside, the fruit features numerous black peppercorn like seeds, encased in a mucin coat, at its hollow central cavity as in melons. The flesh is orange in color with either yellow or pink hues, soft in consistency and has deliciously sweet, musky taste with rich flavor.
Babaco fruit is closely related to papaya, and has similar appearance and flavor as papaya.
The papaya fruit is very low in calories (just 39 calories/100 g) and contains no cholesterol; however, it is a rich source of phyto-nutrients, minerals, and vitamins.
Papayas contain soft, easily digestible flesh with a good amount of soluble dietary fiber that helps to have normal bowel movements; thereby reducing constipation problems.
Fresh, ripe papaya is one of the fruits with the highest vitamin-C content (provides 61.8 mg or about 103% of DRI, more than that of in oranges, or lemons). Research studies have shown that vitamin C has many important functions like free radicals scavenging, immune booster, and anti-inflammatory actions.
It is also an excellent source of Vitamin-A (provides 1094 IU/100 g) and flavonoids like ß-carotene, lutein, zea-xanthin and cryptoxanthin. Vitamin A is required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin and is essential for healthy vision. These compounds are known to have antioxidant properties; help act as protective scavengers against oxygen-derived free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play a role in aging and various disease processes. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes has known to protect the body from lung and oral cavity cancers.
Papaya fruit is also rich in many essential B-complex vitamins such as Folic acid, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin, and thiamin (vitamin B-1). These vitamins are essential in the sense that body requires them from external sources to replenish and play a vital role in metabolism.
Fresh papaya also contains a good amount of potassium (257 mg per 100 g) and calcium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids and helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure countering effects of sodium.
Papaya seeds have been proven natural remedy for many ailments in the traditional medicines. The seeds can be found application as anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, and analgesic, and used to treat stomachache, and ringworm infections.
Mature papaya is usually harvested once its skin slightly turn yellow. Organic papayas generally left to ripen on the tree; however, care should be taken since over-ripe fruits actually fall off from the tree on their own and get spoiled.
|Raw, unripe green papaya.|
In the markets, papayas come in various sizes and stages of maturity; therefore, select the one based on your serving size and timing. Choose the one with intact skin without any surface cracks, bruises or cuts. Unripe fruits can be kept at room temperature for few days but ripe ones should be stored inside the refrigerator. Bring it back to normal temperature when it is to be eaten to get its natural taste and flavor.
Unripe green papaya is cooked as a vegetable in many Asian and Pacific regions. However, it should not be eaten raw as it contains toxic alkaloids in its milky latex.
Wash papaya fruit thoroughly in cold running water to remove dirt and any pesticide residues. Skin is bitter in taste and inedible. Remove skin with "peeling knife," cut the fruit longitudinally into two equal halves. Gently remove seeds and thin slimy layer loosely adhering to the flesh. Cut the fruit longitudinally into wedges or small cubes.
Here are some serving tips:
Ripe papaya fruit is usually eaten raw as it is or with a twist of lemon drops and seasoned with salt and pepper.
Fresh papaya cubes are a great addition to fruit salads.
Papaya juice with ice cubes is a popular drink.
Its cubes can be used in shakes, sorbets, salsa, etc.
Ripe fruit also goes well with chicken and seafood savory dishes.
Unripe green papaya can be used as a vegetable, either cooked, usually in stews, stir-fry, curries, and soups. Papaya flowers stew is a popular recipe in many South-East Asian regions.
Papain enzyme can be employed commercially to tenderize meat.
Papayas contain white milk like sap (latex) substance which can cause irritation to skin and provoke allergic reaction in some sensitized persons.
Ripe papaya fruit can be safely used by pregnant women. Unripe, green papaya should be avoided in them since it contains high levels of papain, a proteolytic enzyme. Additionally, unripe-papaya, its seeds, latex, and leaves also contain carpaine, an alkaloid which could be dangerous when eaten in high doses. Unripe papaya, however, can be eaten safely as a cooked vegetable. (Medical disclaimer).
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Visit here for very informative pages on:-
Research articles on nutrition.
2. Stanford School of Medicine Cancer information Page- Nutrition to Reduce Cancer Risk.
3. Traditional and Medicinal uses of Carica papaya-PDF.